Istanbul has many open spaces to my mind, although many of them have vanished in the last decades or been destroyed specifially in the course of the last 50 years. People were always able to conquer their open spaces again. I remember the overthrow in 1980: one of the first decisions of the new military government was to close downs the tea gardens because they were considered to be sources of subversive thoughts. But it as useless because the people always managed to conquer new spaces. These make up a network, a completely decentral stucture. But the most important change in the last 15 years was the presence of women in public spaces: the classical coffee house dedicated only to men is continously replace by places for both genders, which is a very profound change in this city.